An amputation refers to removal of the entire extremity without replacing it. There are several different types of amputations. The name given to the type of amputation depends upon how much of the limb is removed.
Some special names given to amputations are as follows:
- Transmetatarsal amputation: removing the forefoot by cutting through the metatarsals
- Chopart amputation: amputation through the midfoot closer to the ankle
- Ankle disarticulation: amputation through the ankle joint (between the tibia/fibula and the talus)
- Syme amputation: removal through the lower tibia
Below the Knee Amputation (BKA): amputation through the tibia and fibula (through the leg bones) usually approximately 6-8 inches below the knee
Above the knee amputation (AKA): amputation through the thigh bone
Hip disarticulation: Removal of the entire leg by cutting through the hip joint (between the femoral head and the acetabulum)
Hemipelvectomy: removal of the entire lower extremity including the same side of the pelvis
Extended hemipelvectomy: removal of the entire lower extremity including the same side of the pelvis and the sacrum on the same side.
Ray amputation: removal of a digit including a portion of the hand
Shoulder disarticulation: removal of the upper extremity (entire arm) by cutting through the shoulder joint (between the humeral head and the glenoid)
Forequarter amputation: removal of the entire upper extremity including the shoulder and scapula.